Jodhpur is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was formerly the seat of a princely state of the same name, the capital of the kingdom known as Marwar. Jodhpur is a popular tourist destination, featuring many palaces, forts and temples, set in the stark landscape of the Thar Desert.
The city is known as the "Sun City" for the bright, sunny weather it enjoys all the year round. The old city circles the fort and is bounded by a wall with several gates.Jodhpur is also known as "Blue City" for the blue colour on the houses in the old city area. However, the city has expanded greatly outside the wall over the past several decades. Jodhpur lies near the geographic centre of Rajasthan state, which makes it a convenient base for travel in a region much frequented by tourists.
Jodhpur was also part of the Gurjara–Pratihara Empire and until 1100 AD was ruled by a powerful Gurjar King. Jodhpur was founded in 1459 by Rao Jodha, a Rajput chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory and thus founded a state which came to be known as Marwar. As, Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore, that town initially served as the capital of this state; however, Jodhpur soon took over that role, even during the lifetime of Jodha. The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat. This enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, copper, silk, sandals, date palms and coffee.
The climate of Jodhpur is generally hot and semi-arid, but with a rainy season from late June to September (Köppen BShw). Although the average rainfall is around 450 millimetres (18 in), it is extraordinarily variable. In the famine year of 1899, Jodhpur received only 24 millimetres (0.94 in), but in the flood year 1917 it received as much as 1,178 millimetres (46.4 in).Temperatures are extreme throughout the period from March to October, except when monsoonal rain produces thick clouds to lower it slightly. In the months of April, May and June, high temperatures routinely exceed 40 degrees Celsius. During the monsoon season, average temperatures decrease slightly. However, the city's generally low humidity rises and this adds to the normal discomfort from the heat. Phalodi, near Jodhpur, is the driest place of the district as well as in the state. The highest temperature recorded in Jodhpur is on 18th May 2016 when it rises up to 53.2 degrees Celsius.